The "Pyramid of the Sun" - Visocica
Article published on 15 September 2006

by Irna

When the excavations began, on the 14th of April 2006, Visocica hill, called "pyramid of the Sun" by Mr. Osmanagic, was the main center of interest for the Foundation. At that time, Visocica was supposed to be the only one to be excavated during 2006, and even during 2007, when there was just a project for a few probes on the other "pyramids".

Excavations took place at the beginning in three trenches, on the North-East of Visocica and on the "access plateau" at the West of the hill; then the trenches became more and more numerous, particularly on the North face (the one that is the most often photographed, being the most triangular one), but also on the other faces. The Foundation never published any detailed map of the probes and trenches; the only document that vaguely shows their location is below, but it is very incomplete, lacking some trenches made on the South and South-East faces.

Le seul "plan" des fouilles sur Visocica fourni par la Fondation
The only "map" of the excavations published by the Foundation

In a few days, excavations on the North face revealed more or less geometric slabs of conglomerate:

These slabes or "flagstones" were immediately described by Mr. Osmanagic as "walls" of the pyramid; but he was not very precise about their origin and the way they were set on the hill: sometimes their natural origin was doubtless, they were cut by men and transported from "the first quarries in Bosnia" (news from 2006 16th April (bs) on the Bosnian version of the Foundation website); and sometimes, maybe because of the lack of these quarries and of the difficulties of the transportation of such slabs, they were said to be "artificial flagstones", made of a kind of concrete, of "building material" "casted in situ": that is what are supposed to have said members of the Tuzla Civil Engineering Institute according to some Foundation texts (see here (bs) or there (bs)); it must be noted however that the written report of this Institute (analysed in this article) doesn’t mention any "artificial slab"...

These conglomerate slabs have been found in all the trenches on the North and East face of Visocica, but however a great variability in their composition (the clasts are sometimes angular and sometimes rounded), as well as in their dip, is noticeable. Here are a few examples of this variability, which would be quite surprising in the case of an artificial origin:

At the same time that these slabs were discovered, the excavations on the "access plateau" and on the West and South faces of Visocica gave quite different results: there were found slabs of sandstone, sometimes horizontal or with a very slight dip, sometimes with a pronounced dip, similar to that of the conglomerate slabs; the sandstone is separated in layers a few centimeters to several tens of centimeters deep, and between these layers are intercalated other layers of marl or marly clay:

The same kind of layers can be found in natural outcrops on some locations on the hill:

There again, the Foundation people have immediately presented these sandstone layers as additional proof of the existence of the pyramid; it is said, for instance in this text (bs), that "it has been established that these sandstone blocks form regular steps".

If Visocica is a pyramid, it is probably the most extraordinary one ever built: on two faces "step pyramid", made with regular sandstone steps; the two other faces being made with conglomerate slabs inclined in the same direction as the slope. The builders of this "pyramid of the Sun" did not choose the simplest solution: not only did they use two different kinds of rocks, but they have layed out these rocks with all the range of possible slopes... One must wonder how all these elements could stick together.

Another characteristic of this "pyramid of the Sun" can be noted; announced with a lot of exclamation marks on the Foundation website, the discovery of the North-East angle (bs) of the pyramid seemed to confirm Mr. Osmanagic’s hypothesis:

However, on the same webpage, this "angle" appears with a slope and an orientation so variable, that one must wonder wether it is really a pyramid edge:

And indeed, the diggers present on one of the photographs show that, unless they are digging in a very acrobatic position, the so-called angle is not exactly oriented according to the slope... Strange pyramid, where the edge doesn’t seem to connect the top to the basis!

Mr. Osmanagic’s supporters have made many efforts to find similarities between the "pyramid of the Sun" and other proven pyramids in the world. For instance, as it is well known that the ancient Egyptians used a calcined gypsum cement in their pyramids, a whitish jointing material found in cracks in some blocks has been immediately identified as artificial cement:

As I have shown in this article, the result of the analyses made at the Foundation request on some samples of this "cement" is not very convincing (great differences in the chemical composition between the samples); what is more, seeing the region geology and the abundance of natural carbonate, it is quite probable that these joints are natural calcite joints, the calcite being deposited in old cracks in the blocks by percolating water.

To conclude, the one thing shown by these Visocica excavations is that we stand very far from the picture of the "pyramid of the Sun" that Mr. Osmanagic offered at the beginning of the year: